I have compiled a list of free ebooks on Social Media, Open Source and the Information Society that I’ve been reading in the last few years. You can download the PDF’s from the links below. I hope you enjoy.
1. The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It
This extraordinary book explains the engine that has catapulted the Internet from backwater to ubiquityâ€”and reveals that it is sputtering precisely because of its runaway success. With the unwitting help of its users, the generative Internet is on a path to a lockdown, ending its cycle of innovationâ€”and facilitating unsettling new kinds of control.
IPods, iPhones, Xboxes, and TiVos represent the first wave of Internet-centered products that canâ€™t be easily modified by anyone except their vendors or selected partners. These â€œtethered appliancesâ€ have already been used in remarkable but little-known ways: car GPS systems have been reconfigured at the demand of law enforcement to eavesdrop on the occupants at all times, and digital video recorders have been ordered to self-destruct thanks to a lawsuit against the manufacturer thousands of miles away. New Web 2.0 platforms like Google mash-ups and Facebook are rightly toutedâ€”but their applications can be similarly monitored and eliminated from a central source. As tethered appliances and applications eclipse the PC, the very nature of the Internetâ€”its â€œgenerativity,â€ or innovative characterâ€”is at risk.
The Internet’s current trajectory is one of lost opportunity. Its salvation, Zittrain argues, lies in the hands of its millions of users. Drawing on generative technologies like Wikipedia that have so far survived their own successes, this book shows how to develop new technologies and social structures that allow users to work creatively and collaboratively, participate in solutions, and become true â€œnetizens.â€
2. Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity
From Stanford law professor Lessig (Code; The Future of Ideas) comes this expertly argued, alarming and surprisingly entertaining look at the current copyright wars. Copyright law in the digital age has become a hot topic, thanks to millions of music downloaders and the controversial, high-profile legal efforts of the music industry to stop them. Here Lessig argues that copyright as designed by the Framers has become dangerously unbalanced, favoring the interests of corporate giants over the interests of citizens and would-be innovators. In clear, well-paced prose, Lessig illustrates how corporations attempt to stifle innovations, from FM radio and the instant camera to peer-to-peer technology. He debunks the myth that draconian new copyright enforcement is needed to combat the entertainment industryâ€™s expanded definition of piracy, and chillingly assesses the direct and collateral damage of the copyright war. Information technology student Jesse Jordan, for example, was forced to hand over his life savings to settle a lawsuit brought by the music industryâ€”for merely fixing a glitch in an Internet search engine. Lessig also offers a very personal look into his failed Supreme Court bid to overturn the Copyright Term Extension Act, a law that added 20 years to copyright protections largely to protect Mickey Mouse from the public domain. In addition to offering a brilliant argument, Lessig also suggests a few solutions, including the Creative Commons licensing venture (an online licensing venture that streamlines the rights process for creators), as well as legislative solutions. This is an important book. â€œFree Cultures are cultures that leave a great deal open for others to build upon,â€ he writes. â€œOurs was a free culture. It is becoming less so.â€
3. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom
In this thick academic book, Yale law professor Benkler offers a comprehensive catalog of flashpoints in the conflict between old and new information creators. In Benklerâ€™s view, the new â€œnetworked information economyâ€ allows individuals and groups to be more productive than profit-seeking ventures. New types of collaboration, such as Wikipedia or SETI@Home, â€œoffer defined improvements in autonomy, democratic discourse, cultural creation, and justiceâ€-as long as government regulation aimed at protecting old-school information monoliths (such as the Digital Millennium Copyright Act) doesnâ€™t succeed. Non-market innovation is a good thing in itself and doesnâ€™t even have to threaten entrenched interests, Benkler argues; rather, â€œsocial productionâ€ can use resources that the industrial information economy leaves behind. Where Benkler excels is in bringing together disparate strands of the new information economy, from the democratization of the newsmedia via blogs to the online effort publicizing weaknesses in Diebold voting machines. Though Benkler doesnâ€™t really present any new ideas here, and sometimes draws simplistic distinctions, his defense of the Internetâ€™s power to enrich peopleâ€™s lives is often stirring.
4. Two Bits: The Cultural Significance of Free Software
In Two Bits, Christopher M. Kelty investigates the history and cultural significance of Free Software, revealing the people and practices that have transformed not only software but also music, film, science, and education. Free Software is a set of practices devoted to the collaborative creation of software source code that is made openly and freely available through an unconventional use of copyright law. Kelty explains how these specific practices have reoriented the relations of power around the creation, dissemination, and authorization of all kinds of knowledge. He also makes an important contribution to discussions of public spheres and social imaginaries by demonstrating how Free Software is a â€œrecursive publicâ€â€”a public organized around the ability to build, modify, and maintain the very infrastructure that gives it life in the first place. Drawing on ethnographic research that took him from an Internet healthcare start-up company in Boston to media labs in Berlin to young entrepreneurs in Bangalore, Kelty describes the technologies and the moral vision that bind together hackers, geeks, lawyers, and other Free Software advocates. In each case, he shows how their practices and way of life include not only the sharing of software source code but also ways of conceptualizing openness, writing copyright licenses, coordinating collaboration, and proselytizing. By exploring in detail how these practices came together as the Free Software movement from the 1970s to the 1990s, Kelty also considers how it is possible to understand the new movements emerging from Free Software: projects such as Creative Commons, a nonprofit organization that creates copyright licenses, and Connexions, a project to create an online scholarly textbook commons.
5. The Future of Ideas: The Fate of the Commons in a Connected World
If The Future of Ideas is bleak, we have nobody to blame but ourselves. Author Lawrence Lessig, a Stanford law professor and keen observer of emerging technologies, makes a strong case that large corporations are staging an innovation-stifling power grab while we watch idly. The changes in copyright and other forms of intellectual property protection demanded by the media and software industries have the potential to choke off publicly held material, which Lessig sees as a kind of intellectual commons. He eloquently and persuasively decries this lopsided control of ideas and suggests practical solutions that consider the rights of both creators and consumers, while acknowledging the serious impact of new technologies on old ways of doing business. His proposals would let existing companies make money without using the tremendous advantages of incumbency to eliminate new killer apps before they can threaten the status quo. Readers who want a fair intellectual marketplace would do well to absorb the lessons in The Future of Ideas.
6. Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace, Version 2.0
The â€œalarming and impassionedâ€* book on how the Internet is redefining constitutional law, now reissued as the first popular book revised online by its readers (*New York Times) Thereâ€™s a common belief that cyberspace cannot be regulated-that it is, in its very essence, immune from the governmentâ€™s (or anyone elseâ€™s) control. Code, first published in 2000, argues that this belief is wrong. It is not in the nature of cyberspace to be unregulable; cyberspace has no â€œnature.â€ It only has code-the software and hardware that make cyberspace what it is. That code can create a place of freedom-as the original architecture of the Net did-or a place of oppressive control. Under the influence of commerce, cyberpsace is becoming a highly regulable space, where behavior is much more tightly controlled than in real space. But thatâ€™s not inevitable either. We can-we must-choose what kind of cyberspace we want and what freedoms we will guarantee. These choices are all about architecture: about what kind of code will govern cyberspace, and who will control it. In this realm, code is the most significant form of law, and it is up to lawyers, policymakers, and especially citizens to decide what values that code embodies. Since its original publication, this seminal book has earned the status of a minor classic. This second edition, or Version 2.0, has been prepared through the authorâ€™s wiki, a web site that allows readers to edit the text, making this the first reader-edited revision of a popular book.
7. Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge
IEEE Computer Society Professional Practices Committee
The software engineering body of knowledge is an all-inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of software engineering. Since it is usually not possible to put the full body of knowledge of even an emerging discipline, such as software engineering, into a single document, there is a need for a Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge. This Guide will seek to identify and describe that subset of the body of knowledge that is generally accepted, even though software engineers must be knowledgeable not only in software engineering, but also, of course, in other related disciplines.
8. Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project
The corporate market is now embracing free, â€œopen sourceâ€ software like never before, as evidenced by the recent success of the technologies underlying LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP). Each is the result of a publicly collaborative process among numerous developers who volunteer their time and energy to create better software. The truth is, however, that the overwhelming majority of free software projects fail. To help you beat the odds, Oâ€™Reilly has put together â€œProducing Open Source Software,â€ a guide that recommends tried and true steps to help free software developers work together toward a common goal. Not just for developers who are considering starting their own free software project, this book will also help those who want to participate in the process at any level.
9. Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom
A lot of ideas are packed into this short novel, but Doctorowâ€™s own best idea was setting his story in Disney World, where itâ€™s hard to tell whether technology serves dreams or vice versa. Jules, a relative youngster at more than a century old, is a contented citizen of the Bitchun Society that has filled Earth and near-space since shortage and death were overcome. People are free to do whatever they wish, since the only wealth is respect and since constant internal interface lets all monitor exactly how successful they are at being liked. What Jules wants to do is move to Disney World, join the ad-hoc crew that runs the park and fine-tune the Haunted Mansion ride to make it even more wonderful. When his prudently stored consciousness abruptly awakens in a cloned body, he learns that he was murdered; evidently heâ€™s in the way of somebody elseâ€™s dreams. Jules first suspects, then becomes viciously obsessed by, the innovative group that has turned the Hall of Presidents into a virtual experience. In the conflict that follows, he loses his lover, his job, his respect-even his interface connection-but gains perspective that the other Bitchun citizens lack. Julesâ€™s narrative unfolds so smoothly that readers may forget that all this raging passion is over amusement park rides. Then they can ask what that shows about the novelâ€™s supposedly mature, liberated characters. Doctorow has served up a nicely understated dish: meringue laced with caffeine.
10. Getting Real: The smarter, faster, easier way to build a successful web Application
Getting Real details the business, design, programming, and marketing principles of 37signals. The book is packed with keep-it-simple insights, contrarian points of view, and unconventional approaches to software design. This is not a technical book or a design tutorial, itâ€™s a book of ideas. Anyone working on a web app â€” including entrepreneurs, designers, programmers, executives, or marketers â€” will find value and inspiration in this book. 37signals used the Getting Real process to launch five successful web-based applications (Basecamp, Campfire, Backpack, Writeboard, Ta-da List), and Ruby on Rails, an open-source web application framework, in just two years with no outside funding, no debt, and only 7 people (distributed across 7 time zones). Over 500,000 people around the world use these applications to get things done. Now you can find out how they did it and how you can do it too. Itâ€™s not as hard as you think if you Get Real. The book tackles this very complex topic by distilling it down into easily understandable parts. Starting with the basics of project management, it details specific tools used in free software projects, including version control, IRC, bug tracking, and Wikis. Author Karl Fogel, known for his work on CVS and Subversion, offers practical advice on how to set up and use a range of tools in combination with open mailing lists and archives. He also provides several chapters on the essentials of recruiting and motivating developers, as well as how to gain much-needed publicity for your project. While managing a team of enthusiastic developers â€” most of whom youâ€™ve never even met â€” can be challenging, it can also be fun. â€œProducing Open Source Softwareâ€ takes this into account, too, as it speaks of the sheer pleasure to be had from working with a motivated team of free software developers.
11. Freedom of Expression (R): Overzealous Copyright Bozos and Other Enemies of Creativity
What if George W. Bushâ€™s much ballyhooed â€œownership societyâ€ were taken to an illogical extreme, so that each of us owned a phrase or a sound or a gesture that would generate a little income every time it was used? Of course, we could trademark all the catchphrases we like (as, for example, Donald Trump has with The Apprenticeâ€™s tagline â€œYouâ€™re firedâ€), but most of us are in no position to collect. Corporate entities, however, are capable and quite willing to claim ownership of what until recently would have seemed to be public property, to dangerous ends, argues Kembrew McLeod. The University of Iowa communications professor explores the clash between free speech and intellectual property law in this absorbing and unsettling expose. McLeod eschews the role of the detached observer in favor of a more indignant and even angry voice; indeed, heâ€™s trademarked the phrase â€œfreedom of expressionâ€ to hammer home his point and makes no secret of his contempt for â€œoverzealous copyright bozosâ€ and their ilk. Trends in intellectual property rights and the free exchange of ideas are serious business, however. The author supports his concerns with an array of examples, from the ridiculous (Foxâ€™s attempt to punish comic Al Franken for his satirical use of their â€œfair and balancedâ€ motto) to the alarming (corporate agribusinessâ€™s development of â€œterminator technologyâ€ that makes patented seeds sterile after one planting). McLeod, whoâ€™s written extensively elsewhere about music, uses pop culture as a jumping-off point, but deftly ties together the legal threads that hamstring authors, recording artists, and filmmakers with their working scientific and agricultural counterparts. Indeed, McLeod deserves special kudos for demonstrating that the same forces that can be used to crush the seeds of creativity can also be used to literally smother the seeds of life.
This bookâ€™s documentary companion is available through Media Education Foundation. A low resolution preview of the 60-minute DVD can be seen
12. Free and Open Source Software for Development
Victor van Reijswoud and Arjan de Jager
Development organizations and International Non-Governmental Organizations have been emphasizing the high potential of Free and Open Source Software for the Less Developed Countries. Cost reduction, less vendor dependency and increased potential for local capacity development have been their main arguments. In spite of its advantages, Free and Open Source Software is not widely adopted at the African continent. In this book the authors will explore the grounds on with these expectations are based. Where do they come from and is there evidence to support these expectations? Over the past years several projects have been initiated and some good results have been achieved, but at the same time many challenges were encountered. What lessons can be drawn from these experiences and do these experiences contain enough evidence to support the high expectations? Several projects and their achievements will be considered. In the final part of the book the future of Free and Open Source Software for Development will be explored. Special attention is given to the African continent since here challenges are highest. What is the role of Free and open Source Software for Development and how do we need to position and explore the potential? What are the threats? The book aims at professionals that are engaged in the design and implementation of ICT for Development (ICT4D) projects and want to improve their understanding of the role Free and Open Source Software can play.
13. Information Societies and Digital Divides
The book argues ICT are part of the set of goods and services that determine quality of life, social inequality and the chances for economic development. Therefore understanding the digital divide demands a broader discussion of the place of ICT within each society and in the international system. The author argues against the perspectives that either isolates ICT from other basic social goods (in particular education and employment) as well as those that argue that new technologies are luxury of a consumer society. Though the author accepts that new technologies are not a panacea for the problems of inequality, access to them become a condition of full integration of social life. Using examples mainly from Latin America, the work presents some general policy proposals on the fight against the digital divide which take in consideration other dimensions of social inequality and access to public goods.
14. Free as in Freedom: Richard Stallmanâ€™s Crusade for Free Software
Free as in Freedom interweaves biographical snapshots of GNU project founder Richard Stallman with the political, social and economic history of the free software movement. Starting with how it all beganâ€“a desire for software code from Xerox to make the printing more efficientâ€“to the continuing quest for free software that exists today. It is a movement that Stallman has at turns defined, directed and manipulated. Like Alan Greenspan in the financial sector, Stallman has assumed the role of tribal elder in a community that bills itself as anarchic and immune to central authority. Free as in Freedom looks at how the latest twists and turns in the software marketplace have done little to throw Stallman off his pedestal. Discover how the Richardâ€™s childhood and teenage experiences made him the man he is today. If anything, they have made Stallmanâ€™s logic-based rhetoric and immovable personality more persuasive. In a rapidly changing world people need a fixed reference point, and Stallman has become that reference point for many in the software world.
15. Free Software, Free Society: Selected Essays of Richard M. Stallman
Richard M. Stallman, Lawrence Lessig, Joshua Gay
Stallman is known internationally as the creator of the GNU operating system and cofounder of the Free Software Foundation. In this collection, he provides an accessible guide to the philosophy that inspired his cause. Stallman also takes a critical look at how businesses abuse copyright law and patents as they apply to computer software applications. He explains how these actions damage our society and encroach on our freedoms. Part 1, â€œThe GNU Project and the Free Software Foundation,â€ offers a historical perspective, as well as an introduction, to the philosophy of free software (i.e., free as in â€œfree speech, not free beerâ€). Part 2, â€œCopyrights, Copylefts and Patents,â€ explores the legal aspects of free software, laying out the mission of the free software movement and discussing its long-term goals. Part 3, â€œCreating a Free Society,â€ focuses on the importance of free software in our society and presents helpful examples. Part 4 comprises licenses that developers will find useful in making the programs they create accessible to the widest possible audience, as free software that can be redistributed and changed legally under the terms presented. The text gives more insight into Stallmanâ€™s thought processes than does Sam Williamsâ€™s biography, Free As in Freedom, a complementary work that relies more on interviews with Stallman and his associates. This important collection by a software visionary is recommended for larger public and academic libraries.
16. Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing
Andrew M. St. Laurent
Licensing is a major part of what open source and free software are all about, but itâ€™s still one of the most complicated areas of law. Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing explains your licensing options, how they compare and interoperate, and how license choices affect project possibilities. If youâ€™re an open source/free software developer, this book is an absolute necessity. The book wraps up with a look at the legal effectsâ€“both positive and negativeâ€“of open source/free software licensing. Licensing is a major part of what open source and free software are all about, but it’s still one of the most complicated areas of law. Even the very simple licenses are tricky. Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing bridges the gap between the open source vision and the practical implications of its legal underpinnings. If open source and free software licenses interest you, this book will help you understand them. If you are an open source/free software developer, this book is an absolute necessity.
17. Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution
Chris DiBona, Sam Ockman, Mark Stone, Brian Behlendorf, Scott Bradner, Jim Hamerly, Kirk McKusick, Tim Oâ€™Reilly , Tom Paquin, Bruce Perens, Eric Raymond, Richard Stallman, Michael Tiemann, Linus Torvalds, Paul Vixie, Larry Wall, Bob Young
Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution is a fascinating look at the raging debate that is its namesake. Filled with writings from the central playersâ€“from Linux creator Linus Torvalds to Perl creator Larry Wallâ€“the book convinces the reader of the overwhelming merits of freeing up the many iterations of softwareâ€™s source code. The open-source movement has become a cause cÃ©lÃ¨bre in light of the widespread adoption of Linux, Perl, and Apache as well as its corporate support from Netscape, IBM, and Oracleâ€“and strongly felt opposition from Microsoft. Open Sources doesnâ€™t address why these Microsoft foes are throwing their weight behind the movement. Instead, it focuses on the history and philosophy of open-source software (previously referred to as freeware) as an argument for shaping the future of programming. Open Sources is much larger than just a fight with any one company. Instead, it is a revolutionary call to release software development from the vested interests that label new directions in software development as threatening. This is not to say that opening the source code is an entirely egalitarian and communistic endeavor. These are programmers and startup owners; they want to be able to continue to program for a living. To that end, Open Sources contains strong business profiles from entrepreneurs such as Apacheâ€™sâ€“and now, Oâ€™Reilly & Associatesâ€™â€“Brian Behlendorf, who discusses how to give away software in order to lure customers in for specialized versions. In many ways, this is a hands-on guide, displaying an insiderâ€™s view of the development process and providing specifics on testing details and altering licensing agreements. However, interspersed with tech talk is a reader-friendly guide for those interested in the future of software development.
18. We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People
For the first time, bloggers have been awarded press credentials to cover the national political conventions. Thatâ€šs a harbinger of bigger changes in the media landscape, according to nationally known columnist Dan Gillmor. His new book, We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People, tells the story of the grassroots journalistsâ€“including bloggersâ€“who are dismantling Big Mediaâ€šs monopoly on the news. Through Internet-fueled, interactive vehicles like weblogs, these readers-turned-reporters are transforming the news from a lecture to a conversation. Theyâ€šre publishing in real time to a worldwide audience thatâ€šs eager to read their independent, unfiltered reports. And the impact of their work is just beginning to be felt by professional journalists and the newsmakers they cover. We the Media sheds light on this deep shift in how we makeâ€“and consumeâ€“the news. Journalism in the 21st century will be fundamentally different from the Big Media that prevails today. We the Media casts light on the future of journalism, and invites us all to be part of it.
19. The Cathedral & the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary
Eric S. Raymond
The Cathedral & the Bazaar is a must for anyone who cares about the future of the computer industry or the dynamics of the information economy. Its conclusions will be studied, debated, and implemented for years to come. According to Bob Young, â€œThis is Eric Raymondâ€™s great contribution to the success of the Open Source Revolution, to the adoption of Linux-based operating systems, and to the success of open source users and the companies that supply them.â€ The interest in open source software development has grown enormously in the past year. This revised and expanded paperback edition includes new material on open source developments in 1999 and 2000. Raymondâ€™s clear and effective writing style accurately describing the benefits of open source software has been key to its success. With major vendors creating acceptance for open source within companies, independent vendors will become the open source story in 2001.
20. Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy
Should anyone besides libertarian hackers or record companies care about copyright in the online world? In this incisive treatise, Stanford law prof and Wired columnist Lessig (Free Culture) argues that we should. He frames the problem as a war between an old read-only culture, in which media megaliths sell copyrighted music and movies to passive consumers, and a dawning digital read-write culture, in which audiovisual products are freely downloaded and manipulated in an explosion of democratized creativity. Both cultures can thrive in a hybrid economy, he contends, pioneered by Web entities like YouTube. Lessig’s critique of draconian copyright laws—highlighted by horror stories of entertainment conglomerates threatening tweens for putting up Harry Potter fan sites—is trenchant. (Why, he asks, should sampling music and movies be illegal when quoting texts is fine?) Lessig worries that too stringent copyright laws could stifle such remix masterpieces as a powerful doctored video showing George Bush and Tony Blair lip-synching the song Endless Love, or making scofflaws of America’s youth by criminalizing their irrepressible downloading.
The book will soon be available under a Creative Commons license from Bloomsbury Academic. Stay tuned for launch.
21. We Media: How audiences are shaping the future of news and information
Shayne Bowman and Chris Willis
We are at the beginning of a Golden Age of journalism â€” but it is not journalism as we have known it. Media futurists have predicted that by 2021, â€œcitizens will produce 50 percent of the news peer-to-peer.â€ However, mainstream news media have yet to meaningfully adopt or experiment with these new forms. Historically, journalists have been charged with informing the democracy. But their future will depend not on only how well they inform but how well they encourage and enable conversations with citizens. That is the challenge. This report details the important considerations when exploring a collaborative effort between audience and traditional media organizations.
22. The New Hacker’s Dictionary
Eric S. Raymond
This document is a collection of slang terms used by various subcultures of computer hackers. Though some technical material is included for background and flavor, it is not a technical dictionary; what we describe here is the language hackers use among themselves for fun, social communication, and technical debate. It’s the slang and secret language among computer jocks that offers the most fun. Don’t know what the Infinite-Monkey Theorem is? Or the meaning of “rat dance?” It’s all here. Most people don’t sit down to read dictionaries for entertainment, but this is surely an exception.
23. Wave 3: Power to the people SOCIAL MEDIA TRACKER
This project is an ongoing commitment by Universal McCann to measure consumer usage, attitudes and interests in adopting social media platforms and is the largest exploration of its kind. It aims to provide the facts behind the hype. The first study was published in September 2006 (Wave 1) and the second study in June 2007 (Wave 2). This report (Wave 3) brings together the latest results from Wave 3 as well as tracking the evolving trends since Wave 1. Wave 3 surveyed 17,000 internet users in 29 countries and was completed in March 2008. Since Wave 1 in September 2006 the research has created genuine insights on the patterns of usage, such as China having more bloggers than the US, emerging markets leading take up and Japan shunning photo sharing.
24. FEED: The Razorfish Consumer Experience Report
Razorfish created FEED: The Razorfish Consumer Experience Report with a relatively simple mission: to gain a better understanding of how technology affects todayâ€™s digital consumer experience and explore the emerging trends that will shape those experiences for years to come. Brands will need to create content that engages and â€œreachesâ€ consumers across channels, provide valuable services over mere advertising and master an increasingly complicated and expansive content distribution model. And, of course, they will need to rethink the way they create relationships (or conversations) with consumers before itâ€™s too late. Based on our findings, the second half of FEED: The Razorfish Consumer Experience Report is explicitly concerned with examining the trends, companies and services that are shaping the consumer landscape of the future. For example, in â€œMad Widgetry,â€ I discuss the impact of widgets and RSS feeds on the advertising and media landscape. In â€œAdvertising As a Service,â€ Brandon Geary examines how smart marketers like Nike and Visa are taking a dramatically different approach to reaching consumers.